Please write what age you believe a child should be able to achieve the following: (e.g. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, >12 years).
Please write what age you believe a child should be able to achieve the following: (e.g. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, >12 years)
RESEARCH REPORT – BHS3000320153
Assessments ASSESSMENT 2 LAB/
H RESEARCH REPORT
ASSESSMENT 2 LAB/
LAB/RESEARCH REPORT WRITING
Writing a Lab Report by Andy Fields
An Example of a Student Lab Report
LAB/RESEARCH REPORT RESULTS
Lab/Research Report (Assessment 2) Results
The method and results are given in dot points below but you need to write this in
sentences and paragraphs for your APA lab/research report. More information about the
lab/research report is given in the Unit Overview 2015 in Blackboard under Unit Overview.
and 36 IndianAustralian
mothers (age range: 21 to 48 years).
All mothers currently had a child less than 10 years old.
mothers born in Australia (data collected by Session 1 2015
For the IndianAustralian
mothers: 29% had been living in Australia for 15
24% for 6 to 10 years, 29% for 1115
years and 19% for 16 or more years (this
data comes from an honours student project).
mothers were recruited through community groups and
Questionnaires were translated and back translated into Punjabi by a PunjabiEnglish
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12/10/2015 ASSESSMENT 2 LAB/
RESEARCH REPORT – BHS3000320153
The results for the 36 AngloAustralian
and 36 IndianAustralian
mothers on the 7
domain competencies (Education, Selfcare,
Compliance, Peer interaction,
Communication, Emotional Control and Environmental Independence) in the
developmental milestone questionnaire were compared using a series of analyses of
variance (ANOVAs). Results are presented in Table 1.
mothers gave a significantly earlier age than
mothers for four out of the seven
competency domains; selfcare,
compliance, peer interaction, and
For communication and environmental independence domains,
there was no significant difference between the two cultural
For education, the IndianAustralian
mothers had significantly
earlier age expectations than the AngloAustralians.
Table 1. Maternal age expectation mean scores for the seven competency domains in
the two cultural groups.
Domain competencies AngloAustralian
Education 4.81 3.80
Compliance 4.89 5.47
Peer interaction 4.92 5.73
Communication 4.84 4.98
Emotional Control 5.70 6.56
ASSESSMENT 2: APA Lab/Research Report (45%) Guidelines 1750 words (excluding reference list and abstract)
The lab/research report is on Parental Milestone Expectations in Australian-Indian and Anglo-Australian caretakers. First, read the overview of the study on p.8. The results of this study are available on Blackboard (the Australian-Indian data was collected by an honours student and the Anglo-Australian data was collected by the students in Session 1 2015). You need to write up this study as an APA lab/research report (1750 words maximum) in your own words based on this data. Important – you need to paraphrase (use your own words) with references or if it is a direct quote use quotation marks around the relevant text and a reference and page number. It is better to not use too many direct quotes though as it tends to interrupt the flow if you use too many, so preferable to paraphrase. Submit the lab report via Blackboard by Friday 18th December 2015.
Please refer to the lab/research report marking criteria (p.19) and the overview of the study (p.8), which includes useful references. The aim of the overview of the study is to help you understand the background literature and aims of the study. You need to use at least 6 academic references. Some useful references are available through e-readings for this unit and are listed on p.12. OneSearch on the library homepage is a very useful way of finding journal articles too. This is also an important research skill to acquire.
This link shows you how to use the library to find an already known reference: http://www.screencast.com/t/WEJQWe3Xe
This is the link to our online APA referencing guide:
Additional useful resources on how to write a Psychology lab report http://psychology.about.com/od/apastyle/p/labreport.htm
For students who have not previously written a lab/research report we will also go over this in the tutorials. 8
BHS30003 2013 LAB/RESEARCH REPORT
OVERVIEW OF THE STUDY
DATA COLLECTION EXERCISE AND LAB/RESEARCH REPORT
Parental Milestone Expectations in Anglo-Australian and Indian-Australian Caretakers
This overview of the study is designed to help you understand the aims and background to this study.
Parents or caretakers play a prominent role in the socialisation process as they scaffold children’s learning and through these interactions children gradually absorb the cultural values and practices of their culture. The research project aims to examine parental milestone expectations and cognitions across two cultural groups; Anglo Australian and Indian Australian. Cultures differ in the “types of competence that adults encourage in children, the age at which they expect a given skill to be acquired, and the level of proficiency they want children to achieve” (Hess, Kashiwagi, Azuma, Price, & Dickson, 1980, p. 259).
First, I will review some relevant background literature to this research, which includes parental cognitions and expectations, individualism-collectivism, and multiculturalism in Australia prior to outlining the methodology that is used in the current study. (Note: You can use material from this overview for your research report but it has to be written in your own words and not just copied from here. You also need to refer to the academic references listed on p. 12).
Parental Cognitions and Expectations
Parenting cognitions concerns parents’ beliefs, attitudes, goals and knowledge about child rearing, socialisation practices and expectations about ages that children will achieve particular developmental milestones (Bornstein & Cote, 2006). These attitudes, values, goals and belief systems influence child rearing practices and behaviours (Bornstein & Lansford, 2010). As an example, European American mothers emphasise the development of individual autonomy in 12 to 15 month toddlers, whereas Puerto Rican mothers focus on maternal-child interdependence and connectedness (Harwood, Schoelmerich, Schulze, & Gonzalez, 1999). These values are reflected in the mothers’ actual behaviours with European American mothers using suggestions rather than 9
commands and other indirect means of structuring their child’s behaviour. In contrast, Puerto Rican mothers use more direct means of control, i.e., commands and physical restraint. So it can be seen that parental childrearing goals are closely aligned with cultural context and socialisation practices (Bornstein & Lansford, 2010).
Of particular relevance to the current study, Sissons Joshi and Maclean (1997) compared the maternal expectations of Indian, Japanese and English mothers living in their respective countries in the competency domains of education/self-care, compliance, peer interaction, communication, emotional control and environmental independence. They found that the Indian mothers had, in general, later expectancies than either the Japanese or English mothers in all domains except environmental independence, where they were earlier than English but later than Japanese mothers.
Individualism – Collectivism
One attempt to categorize different cultures has been to dichotomize groups in terms of individualism or collectivism (IC) (Kagitçibasi, 1997; Smith, Bond, & Kagitçibasi, 2006; Triandis, 1995). Both the degree of societal and personal individualism or collectivism is believed to influence child rearing practices. For example, individualists tend to value self reliance, exploration, and independence in children, whereas collectivists tend to foster interdependence, sensitivity to others, obedience, and duty. Individualist cultures typically promote an independently oriented self-construal that emphasizes the unique inner attributes of the individual (Markus & Kitayama, 1991). The individualist self is characterized as independent, self-contained, and autonomous. In contrast, the collectivist self is characterized as interdependent and interconnected with others. People from collectivist cultures, in general, learn that group goals, harmony, membership, and solidarity are important. We would typically think of Asian, Indigenous, African cultures, for example, as being more collectivist, whereas we could consider American, North European, Australian countries as being more individualist. Of course some countries are very multicultural which makes it all much more complex and interesting. It is important to note that no culture is uniformly individualist or collectivist, the degree of individualism and collectivism varies within cultures, and culture-specific characteristics are an essential consideration (Bornstein & Cote, 2001). In relation to the current study, Anglo-Australians would be considered to be relatively more individualistic than people from an Indian-Australian background. 10
Multiculturalism in Australia
Australia has the highest overseas born population proportionally than any other country, with second generation Australians accounting for more than half of its total population (Berry & Sam, 2006). Migrants face significant challenges in their transition to living in a new country and culture. These include the challenge of balancing and maintaining ethnic identity with successfully participating in the host society (Berry, 1997).
The parent’s acculturation style is an important mediating variable in terms of both how well families adapt to their new environment and how they raise their children in relation to the host society (Bornstein & Cote, 2009; Yaman et al., 2010). Parents who are highly acculturated generally exhibit parenting expectations and practices more closely resembling that of the host society (Savage & Gauvain, 1998). For example, Turkish mothers living in Australia who interacted more with the host culture, showed a corresponding shift in their discipline style towards those of the host culture (Yagmurlu & Sanson, 2009). Problems may arise through this process of socialization, often polarizing children and parents with a clash of cultural values.
Indian migrants have had a long history of immigration to Australia. The Indian-Australian diaspora represents Australia’s fourth largest migrant community with an estimated 340,604 members (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2006). Indian labourers, in the 1860’s came to work in northern New South Wales. In the 1930’s the single largest flow of immigrants were Sikhs from the Japandhar district of Punjab (Naidoo, 2007). Even though Indian migrants come from different cultural backgrounds, they share certain attitudes and traditions. Families place a strong emphasis on parenting practices connected to family interdependence and delay of autonomy in their children (Bhattacharya & Schoppelrey, 2004). Child rearing is also characterized by close social relationships, indulgence and interconnectedness with other people (Keller et al., 2006; Keller et al., 2010). Traditionally, Indian families are patriarchal and have joint family residential patterns, which are considered to have a major influence on maternal expectations (Jambunathan & Counselman, 2002).
It is essential in multicultural societies, such as Australia, to build up a greater understanding of the shared as well as different perspectives on childrearing goals and practices that are held by different cultural groups. This is particularly important in relation to childcare and educational settings. So far there has been little research based on 11
the Indian-Australian immigrant diaspora and even less on how acculturation may influence parental expectations.
Aims of the Study
The research aims to investigate the cultural differences in parental expectations of childhood developmental milestones (i.e. the ages at which parents/caretakers expect specific developmental skills to be attained by children) in Anglo-Australian and Indian-Australian caretakers (Goodnow, Cashmore, Cotton, & Knight, 1984). Based on previous research on mainland Indian caretakers (Sissons Joshi & MacLean, 1997), it can be predicted that the milestone expectations of the Indian Australian mothers will be relatively delayed in comparison to the Anglo Australians in all domains, with the exception of environmental independence.
Participants. The participants consisted of 36 mothers from each of the two cultural groups, Anglo- and Indian- Australian. All Anglo-Australian mothers were born in Australia (Session 1 2015 student data). For the Australian Indian mothers, 29% had been living in Australia for 1-5 years, 24% for 6 to 10 years, 29% for 11-15 years and 19% for 16 or more years (this data comes from an honours project). The Indian-Australian mothers were recruited through community groups and organizations. The questionnaire (p.16) was translated and back translated into Punjabi by a Punjabi-English bilingual.
Developmental milestone expectations questionnaire. The 43-item scale based on Hess et al. (1980) and Sissons Joshi and Maclean (1997) was used to assess parental beliefs about the age they expect children to reach particular developmental milestones of the Anglo- and Indian- Australians. The questions consisted of seven domains of competency – Education, Self-care, Compliance, Peer interaction, Communication, Emotional control and Environmental independence (the questionnaire used to collect the data is on p.16). Respondents gave an age of expected achievement to each of the questions.
PLEASE look at the materials on Blackboard on how to write a research lab report and the previous example of a lab/research report. Your lab/research report is like a mini-journal article as it has the same format, so you can also use them as models. 12
(The most relevant or useful references are indicated with ** so read these first)
Berry, J.W. (1997). Immigration, acculturation, and adaptation. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 46, 5-68. [Available through scu library]
Berry, S., & Sam, D. L. (2006). The Cambridge handbook of acculturation psychology. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. [Available through scu library]
Bornstein, M. H., & Cote, L.R. (2001). Mother-infant interaction and acculturation: I. Behavioural comparisons in Japanese American and South American families. International Journal of Behavioural Development, 25, 349-563. [Available through scu library]
Bornstein, M. H., & Lansford, J. E. (2010). Parenting. In M. H. Bornstein (Ed.), The handbook of cross-cultural developmental science (pp. 259-277). New York: Taylor and Francis. [Not available through scu library]
Bhattacharya, G., & Schoppelrey, S. L. (2004). Preimmigration beliefs of life success, post-immigration experiences, and acculturative stress: South Asian immigrants in the United States. Journal of Immigrant Health, 6, 83–92. [Not available through scu library]
Gutierrez, J., & Sameroff, A. J. (1990). Determinants of complexity in Mexican-American and Anglo-American mothers’ conceptions of child development. Child Development, 61, 384-394. [Available through scu library]
**Goodnow, J. J., Cashmore, J., Cotton, S., & Knight, R. (1984). Mothers’ developmental timetables in two cultural groups. International Journal of Psychology, 19, 193-205. [In e-readings and available through scu library]
Greenfield, P. M., Keller, H., Fuligni, A., & Maynard, A. (2003). Cultural pathways through universal development. Annual Review of Psychology, 54, 461-490. [Available through scu library]
Harwood, R, L., Schoelmerich, A., Schulze, P,A., & Gonzalez, Z. (1999). Cultural differences in maternal beliefs and behaviors: A study of middle-class Anglo and Puerto Rican mother-infant pairs in four everyday situations. Child Development, 70(4), 1005-1016. [Available through scu library]
**Hess, R, D., Kashiwagi, K., Azuma, H., Price, G, G., & Dickson, P. (1980). Maternal expectations for mastery of developmental tasks in Japan and the United States. International Journal of Psychology, 15, 259-271. [In e-readings and available through scu library]
Hofstede, G, H. (2001). Culture’s consequences: Comparing values, behaviours, institutions, and organizations across nations. (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. [Not available through scu library] 13
Jambunathan, S., & Counselman, K. P. (2002). Parenting attitudes of Asian Indian mothers living in the United States and in India. Early Child Development and Care, 172(6), 657–662. [Available through e-readings]
Kagitçibasi, C. (1997). Individualism and collectivism. In J.W. Berry, M.H. Segall, & C. Kagitçibasi (Eds.), Handbook of cross-cultural psychology (2nd ed.), (Vol. 3, pp 1-49). Boston: Allyn & Bacon. [Not available through scu library]
Kagitçibasi, C. (1997). Whither multiculturalism? Applied Psychology, 46(1), 44-49. [Available through scu library]
Kagitçibasi, C. (2007). Family, self, and human development across cultures (2nd edition). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. [Not available through scu library]
Keller et al. (2006). Cultural models, socialization goals and parenting ethnotheories. A multicultural analysis. Journal of Cross-cultural Psychology, http://dishlab.org/pubs/Keller et al 2006 JCCP.pdf
Keller, H., Borke, J., Chaudhary, N., Lamm, B., & Kleis, A. (2010). Continuity in Parenting Strategies: A Cross-Cultural Comparison. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 41, 391-409. [Available through scu library]
LeVine, R.A. (1988). Human and parental care: Universal goals, cultural strategies, and individual behavior. In R.A. LeVine, P.M. Miller and M.M. West (Eds.), Parental behavior in diverse societies. New directions for child development. San Francisco: Jossy-Boss. [Not available through scu library]
Markus, H.R., & Kitayama, S. (1991). Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation. Psychological Review, 98, 224–253. [Available through scu library]
Matsumoto, D. (1999). Culture and Self: An empirical assessment of Markus and Kitayama’s theory of independent and interdependent self construals. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 2, 289-310. [Available through scu library]
Matsumoto, D., & Juang, L. (2008). Culture and Psychology. 4th edition. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. [Available through scu library]
Naidoo, L. (2007). Re-negotiating identity and reconciling cultural ambiguity in the Indian immigrant community in Sydney, Australia. In A. Singh (Ed.), Indian Diaspora – the 21st Century – Migration, Change and Adaption, Delhi: Kamla-Raj Publishers. [Not available through scu library]
Oyserman, D., Coon, H. M., & Kemmelmeier, M. (2002). Rethinking individualism and collectivism: Evaluation of theoretical assumptions and meta-analyses. Psychological Bulletin, 128(1), 3-72. [Available through scu library]
Pearson, E., & Rao, N. (2003). Socialization goals, parenting practices, and peer competence in Chinese and English preschoolers. Early Childhood Development and Care, 173(1), 131-146. [Not available through scu library] 14
Rosenthal, D. A., & Gold, R. (1989). A comparison of Vietnamese-Australian and Anglo-Australian mothers’ beliefs about intellectual development. International Journal of Psychology, 24(2), 179-193. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/00207594.1989.10600041
Rosenthal, D. A., & Bornholt, L. (1988). Expectations about development in Greek and Anglo-Australian families. Journal of Cross-cultural Psychology, 19(1), 19-34. [Available through scu library]
Savage, S. L., & Gauvain, M. (1998). Parental beliefs and children’s everyday planning in European-American and Latino families. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 19(3), 319-340. [Not available through scu library]
**Sissons Joshi, M, S., & MacLean, M. (1997). Maternal expectations of child development In India, Japan and England. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 28, 219-234. [In e-readings and available through scu library]
Smith, P.B., Bond, M.H., & Kagitcibasi, C. (2006). Understanding social psychology across cultures: Living and working in a changing world. London: Sage. [Not available through scu library]
Taylor, L., Clayton, J., & Rowley, S. (2004). Academic socialization: Understanding parental influences on children’s school-related development in the early years. Review of General Psychology, 8, 163-178. http://viriya.net/jabref/resilience/academic_socialization_-_understanding_parental_influences_on_childrens_school-related_development_in_the_early_years.pdf
Triandis, H.C. (1995). Individualism and collectivism. Boulder, CO: Westview. [Not available through scu library]
Willemsen , M.E., & Van de Vijver, F.J.R. (1997). Developmental expectations of Dutch, Turkish Dutch, and Zambian mothers: Towards an explanation of cross cultural differences. International Journal of Behavioural Development, 2(4), 837- 854. http://arno.uvt.nl/show.cgi?fid=29237
Williams, P.D., Jiningsih, S., & Williams, A.R. (2000). Balinese mothers’ developmental timetables for young children. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 22(6), 717-735. [Available through scu library]
**Wise, S., & da Silva, L. (2007). Differential parenting of children from diverse cultural backgrounds attending child care. Australian Institute of Family Studies, 39. Available at http://www.aifs.gov.au/institute/pubs/rp39/rp39.html
**Wise, S., & Sanson, A. (2000). Child care in cultural context: Issues for new research. Australian Institute of Family Studies, 22, 1–24. Available at www.aifs.gov.au/institute/pubs/RP22.pdf
Winskel, H., Salehuddin, K., & Stanbury, J. (2013). Developmental milestone expectations, parenting styles and self construal in Malaysian and Australian caregivers. Kajian Malaysia, 31(1), 19-35. This is another honours student project available at https://www.academia.edu/2546418/Winskel_Salehuddin_and_Stanbury_2013_._Dev15
**Yagmurlu, B., & Sanson, A. (2009). Acculturation and parenting among Turkish Mothers in Australia. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 40(3), 361–380. [Available through scu library]
Yaman, A. E., Mesman, J., Van IJzendoorn, M. H., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., Linting, M. (2010). Parenting in an individualistic culture with a collectivistic cultural background: The case of Turkish immigrant families with toddlers in the Netherlands. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 19(5), 617–628. [Available through scu library] 16
DEVELOPMENTAL MILESTONES EXPECTATIONS QUESTIONNAIRE ABOUT CHILDREN’S ABILITIES (based on Sissons Joshi & MacLean, 1997)
Note: This was used by students in Session 1 2015 to collect the data – you don’t need to collect data.
Your name: Student no.:
Background Information of Respondent (person who completes the questionnaire)
Gender: Female Male
First language spoken:
INSTRUCTIONS: Please write what age you believe a child should be able to achieve the following: (e.g. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, >12 years)
1. Count to ten
2. Write alphabet
3. Eat without help
4. Wash hands before meals
5. Use toilet without help
6. Dress alone
7. Brush teeth properly
8. Bathe alone
9. Come or answer when called
10. Stop misbehaving when told
11. Not do things forbidden by parents
12. Do something immediately when told
13. Give up TV when asked to do something for mother
14. Keep feet off furniture
15. Give full attention to adults when they are speaking 17
16. Answer phone properly
17. Be polite to visiting adults
18. Not interrupt adults when talking
19. Show interest in wellbeing of relatives
20. Allow others to play with his/her toys
21. Wait for turn when playing
22. Be sympathetic to feelings of other children
23. Take leadership role when playing
24. Get own way by persuading others
25. Resolve quarrels without fighting
26. Resolve quarrels without adult help
27. Answer a question clearly
28. Ask for explanation when in doubt
29. Explain why he or she feels angry
30. When asked give own opinions
31. Phone by him/herself
32. Not bite or throw something in frustration
33. Control anger by self
34. Not cry easily
35. Not go on and on about wanting expensive toys
36. Stand disappointment without crying
37. Not laugh at other child’s misfortune 18
38. Not show disappointment with gift
39. Hide being upset at being teased by children
40. Play in street without adult present
41. Go to school unaccompanied by adult
42. Stay home alone for 1-2 hours
43. Buy things on his/her own
Thank you very much! 19
Clearly and consisely gives an overview of the research, i.e. overall aim, method, results, conclusion 5 4 3 2 1
Literature review Relevant research reviewed
Prior research clearly and thoroughly reviewed
Funnelled literature review, i.e. progression from general to more relevant or specific 20 16 12 8 4
Expression at the sentence level Sentences grammatically and clearly expressed
Good paraphrasing 5 4 3 2 1
Clear linkage within paragraphs Sentences within paragraphs share a common theme or topic & logically link with other sentences within the paragraph 5 4 3 2 1
Clear linkage between paragraphs & to the overall topic Paragraphs link or follow logically 5 4 3 2 1
Research Questions/Hypotheses Logically follow on from the literature reviewed.
Clearly expressed 10 8 6 4 2
Method Clearly & concisely explained, links logically with research questions/hypotheses 5 4 3 2 1
Results Clearly and concisely written
Tables and graphs appropriately presented 10 8 6 4 2
Discussion Results systematically addressed and interpreted in relation to previous research discussed in the literature review. 20 16 12 8 4
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Please write what age you believe a child should be able to achieve the following: (e.g. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, >12 years)